What does it mean to be human? Is it a simple biological definition, or does the concept involve specific values and attitudes? Beyond mere philosophical questioning, this article aims at deepening our understanding of what makes us human from a specific viewpoint: that of humans’ interaction with robots. Although most people still consider this issue a subject for science fiction, it is indeed already knocking at our door: By 2033, 47 percent of today’s jobs could be automated. How will we cope with this immense revolution? How can global governance face it? Considering the recent acceleration in robotics development, two different future situations involving robots have been chosen as case studies. The first involves android robots at work, and the second in domestic life. In each case, we attempt to answer the following question: How will human beings interact with human-looking robots living and working around them? Unless we each as individuals can recognize what makes us human, we will fail to share our humanity and face what could be the most challenging situation of all time.