Of, For, and By the People: The Legal Lacuna of Synthetic Persons

Conferring legal personhood on purely synthetic entities is a very real legal possibility, one under consideration presently by the European Union. We show here that such legislative action would be morally unnecessary and legally troublesome. While AI legal personhood may have emotional or economic appeal, so do many superficially desirable hazards against which the law…

One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100)

This report is the first in a series to be issued at regular intervals as a part of the One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100). Starting from a charge given by the AI100 Standing Committee to consider the likely influences of AI in a typical North American city by the year 2030, the…

Assessing the Risk of Artificial Intelligence

One sector that saw the huge disruptive potential of AI from an early stage is the military. The weaponization of AI will represent a paradigm shift in the way wars are fought, with profound consequences for international security and stability. Serious investment in autonomous weapon systems (AWS) began a few years ago; in July 2016…

The evitability of autonomous robot warfare

AbstractThis is a call for the prohibition of autonomous lethal targeting by free-ranging robots. This article will first point out the three main international humanitarian law (IHL)/ethical issues with armed autonomous robots and then move on to discuss a major stumbling block to their evitability: misunderstandings about the limitations of robotic systems and artificial intelligence.…

PalliaSys: Agent-Based Palliative Care

This paper presents the main ideas underlying the work which is being developed at the Spanish research project PalliaSys, in which both Multi-Agent Systems and Information and Communication Technologies are being used to improve the management of the clinical data of palliative patients. A prototype of the system will be tested at the Palliative Care…

Case-based Recommender Systems

We describe recommender systems and especially case-based recommender systems. We define a framework in which these systems can be understood. The framework contrasts collaborative with case-based, reactive with proactive, single-shot with conversational, and asking with proposing. Within this framework, we review a selection of papers from the case-based recommender systems literature, covering the development of…

Emergent case-based reasoning applications

The basic principle underpinning case-based reasoning (CBR) is that new problems can be solved by reusing solutions to past problems. The generality of this idea means that CBR is finding application in a wide variety of areas. The special advantage of CBR is that a case can be a very convenient means of capturing knowledge,…

Case-Based Reasoning Systems in the Health Sciences: A Survey of Recent Trends and Developments

The health sciences are, nowadays, one of the major application areas for case-based reasoning (CBR). The paper presents a survey of recent medical CBR systems based on a literature review and an e-mail questionnaire sent to the corresponding authors of the papers where these systems are presented. Some clear trends have been identified, such as…

Virtual Criminal Responsibility

The modern question relating to AI entities becomes: Does the growing intelligence of AI entities subject them to legal social control, as any other legal entity? This article attempts to work out a legal solution to the problem of the criminal liability of AI entities. At the outset, a definition of an AI entity will…

A novel modification of the Turing test for artificial intelligence and robotics in healthcare

BACKGROUND: The increasing demands of delivering higher quality global healthcare has resulted in a corresponding expansion in the development of computer-based and robotic healthcare tools that rely on artificially intelligent technologies. The Turing test was designed to assess artificial intelligence (AI) in computer technology. It remains an important qualitative tool for testing the next generation…