A history of automatic control

Automatic control, particularly the application of feedback, has been fundamental to the devel- opment of automation. Its origins lie in the level control, water clocks, and pneumatics/hydraulics of the ancient world. From the 17th century on- wards, systems were designed for temperature control, the mechanical control of mills, and the regulation of steam engines. During…

Real-time inference of mental states from facial expressions and upper body gestures

We present a real-time system for detecting facial action units and inferring emotional states from head and shoulder gestures and facial expressions. The dynamic system uses three levels of inference on progressively longer time scales. Firstly, facial action units and head orientation are identified from 22 feature points and Gabor filters. Secondly, Hidden Markov Models…

Living With Seal Robots: Its Sociopsychological and Physiological Influences on the Elderly at a Care House

Robot therapy for elderly residents in a care house has been conducted since June 2005. Two therapeutic robots were introduced into a care facility, and activated for over 9 h each day to interact with the residents. This paper presents the results of the first month of this experiment. To investigate the psychological and social…