Interaction Expands Function: Social Shaping of the Therapeutic Robot PARO in a Nursing Home

We use the social shaping of technology and society framework to qualitatively analyze data collected through observation of human-robot interaction (HRI) between social actors in a nursing home (staff, residents, visitors) and the socially assistive robot PARO. The study took place over the course of three months, during which PARO was placed in a publicly…

A survey of socially interactive robots

This paper reviews socially interactive robots: robots for which social human robot interaction is important. We begin by discussing the context for socially interactive robots, emphasizing the relationship to other research fields and the different forms of social robots. We then present a taxonomy of design methods and system components used to build socially interactive…

A Robotic Coach Architecture for Elder Care (ROCARE) Based on Multi-user Engagement Models

The aging population with its concomitant medical conditions, physical and cognitive impairments, at a time of strained resources, establishes the urgent need to explore advanced technologies that may enhance function and quality of life. Recently, robotic technology, especially socially assistive robotics has been investigated to address the physical, cognitive, and social needs of older adults.…

Developing a healthcare robot with personalized behaviors and social skills for the elderly

This paper describes research towards a general framework for a behavior control architecture that will provide customized interaction between the robot and an elderly individual suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This framework will enable the robot to learn from past events and to adapt its behavior to the specific needs of the person that…

Teach Me Show Me End-User Personalization of a Smart Home and Companion Robot

Care issues and costs associated with an increasing elderly population are becoming a major concern for many countries. The use of assistive robots in “smart-home” environments has been suggested as a possible partial solution to these concerns. A challenge is the personalization of the robot to meet the changing needs of the elderly person over…

Lessons learned from the deployment of a long-term autonomous robot as companion in physical therapy for older adults with dementia a mixed methods study

The eldercare sector is a promising deployment area for robotics where robots can support staff and help to bridge the predicted staff-shortage. A requirement analysis showed that one field of robot-deployment could be supporting physical therapy of older adults with advanced dementia. To explore this possibility, a long-term autonomous robot was deployed as a walking…

Robots against infectious diseases

Robots can play an integral role in the fight against infectious diseases. Robots, unlike humans, cannot catch infectious diseases; unlike vaccines, they are agnostic to specific infectious agents; unlike antibiotics, they do not contribute to medically-resistant strains. Despite these benefits, there remain enormous technical, cultural, and social-psychological challenges to successfully deploy robots in the fight…

How Robots Can Affect Human Behavior: Investigating the Effects of Robotic Displays of Protest and Distress

The rise of military drones and other robots deployed in ethically-sensitive contexts has fueled interest in developing autonomous agents that behave ethically. The ability for autonomous agents to independently reason about situational ethics will inevitably lead to confrontations between robots and human operators regarding the morality of issued commands. Ideally, a robot would be able…

Preserving dignity in patient caregiver relationships using moral emotions and robots

This paper provides an overview of an ongoing NSF project that is intended to improve the long-term quality of care for patients suffering from early stage Parkinson's disease. Due to facial masking in the patient, a stigmatization often occurs in their relationship with the caregiver due to the inability to adequately perceive the patient's emotional…

Human-robot teaming for search and rescue

This work establishes an architecture for Urban Search and Rescue and a methodology for mixing real-world and simulation-based testing. A sensor suite and sensor fusion algorithm for robust victim detection permits aggregation of sensor readings from various sensors on multiple robots.

Psychological and social effects of one year robot assisted activity on elderly people at a health service facility for the aged

A long-term experiment of robot assisted activity for elderly people has been conducted at a health service facility for the aged since Aug. 2003. Three therapeutic seal robots, Paro, were introduced there. This paper describes the results of the experiment for one year. Face scales that consist of illustrations of person's faces were used to…

Effects of etiquette strategy on human–robot interaction in a simulated medicine delivery task

The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which a model of linguistic etiquette in human–human interaction could be applied to the human–robot interaction (HRI) domain, and how different etiquette strategies proposed through the model might influence performance of humans and robots as mediated by manipulations of robot physical features in a…

Pre-collision safety strategies for human-robot interaction

Safe planning and control is essential to bringing human-robot interaction into common experience. This paper presents an integrated human−robot interaction strategy that ensures the safety of the human participant through a coordinated suite of safety strategies that are selected and implemented to anticipate and respond to varying time horizons for potential hazards and varying expected…

Robotic Etiquette: Socially Acceptable Navigation of Service Robots with Human Motion Pattern Learning and Prediction

Nonverbal and noncontact behaviors play a significant role in allowing service robots to structure their interactions with humans. In this paper, a novel human-mimic mechanism of robot navigational skills was proposed for developing socially acceptable robotic etiquette. Based on the sociological and physiological concerns of interpersonal interactions in movement, several criteria in navigation were represented…

Robots That Stereotype: Creating and Using Categories of People for Human-Robot Interaction

Psychologists note that humans use categories to simplify and speed the process of person perception. Applications that require a robot to interact with a variety of different people will demand the creation of stereotypes representing different categories of people. This article presents a method for stereotype learning and usage by a robot. Both robot and…

Talking About Task Progress: Towards Integrating Task Planning and Dialogue for Assistive Robotic Services

The use of service robots to assist aging people in their own homes has the potential to allow people to maintain their independence, increasing their health and quality of life. In many assistive applications, robots perform tasks on a person's behalf that they are unable or unwilling to monitor directly. It is important that users…

The Ethical Landscape of Robotics

In this article, we highlight the possible benefits, as well potential threats, related to the widespread use of robots. We follow the view that a robot cannot be analyzed on its own without taking into consideration the complex sociotechnical nexus of today's societies and that high-tech devices, such as robots, may influence how societies develop…

Living With Seal Robots: Its Sociopsychological and Physiological Influences on the Elderly at a Care House

Robot therapy for elderly residents in a care house has been conducted since June 2005. Two therapeutic robots were introduced into a care facility, and activated for over 9 h each day to interact with the residents. This paper presents the results of the first month of this experiment. To investigate the psychological and social…

User-robot personality matching and assistive robot behavior adaptation for post-stroke rehabilitation therapy

This paper describes a hands-off, socially assistive therapist robot designed to monitor, assist, encourage, and socially interact with post-stroke users engaged in rehabilitation exercises. We investigate the role of the robot’s personality in the hands-off therapy process, focusing on the relationship between the level of extroversion–introversion of the robot and the user. We also demonstrate…

“Sorry, I Can’t Do That”: Developing Mechanisms to Appropriately Reject Directives in Human-Robot Interactions

Future robots will need mechanisms to determine when and how it is best to reject directives that it receives from human interlocutors. In this paper, we briefly present initial work that has been done in the DIARC/ADE cognitive robotic architecture to enable a directive rejection and explanation mechanism, showing its operation in a simple HRI…

The Inherent Dangers of Unidirectional Emotional Bonds between Humans and Social Robots

Emotional dependence on social robots is different from other human dependencies on technology (e.g., different both in kind and quality from depending on one’s cell phone, wrist watch, or PDA). To be able to understand the difference and the potential ramifications of building complex social robots that are freely deployed in human societies, we have…