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Humanoid push recovery

We extend simple models previously developed for humanoids to large push recovery. Using these simple models, we develop analytic decision surfaces that are functions of reference points, such as the center of mass and center of pressure, that predict whether or not a fall is inevitable. We explore three strategies for recovery: 1) using ankle…

Human-robot teaming for search and rescue

This work establishes an architecture for Urban Search and Rescue and a methodology for mixing real-world and simulation-based testing. A sensor suite and sensor fusion algorithm for robust victim detection permits aggregation of sensor readings from various sensors on multiple robots.

A history of automatic control

Automatic control, particularly the application of feedback, has been fundamental to the devel- opment of automation. Its origins lie in the level control, water clocks, and pneumatics/hydraulics of the ancient world. From the 17th century on- wards, systems were designed for temperature control, the mechanical control of mills, and the regulation of steam engines. During…

A Computational Model of Empathy: Empirical Evaluation

Empathy can be defined as the ability to perceive and understand others' emotional states. Neuropsychological evidence has shown that humans empathize with each other to different degrees depending on factors such as their mood, personality, and social relationships. Although artificial agents have been endowed with features such as affect, personality, and the ability to build…

A Conceptual and Computational Model of Moral Decision Making in Human and Artificial Agents

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational…

AIonAI: A Humanitarian Law of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

The enduring progression of artificial intelligence and cybernetics offers an ever-closer possibility of rational and sentient robots. The ethics and morals deriving from this technological prospect have been considered in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, the design of automatons with roboethics and the contemplation of machine ethics through the concept of artificial moral agents. Across…

Architectures and Ethics for Robots

The goal of this chapter is to propose constraint satisfaction as a central design concept for intelligent robots. Some proposals for codes of robot ethics apparently presuppose the existence of certain technical abilities on behalf of the robot designer that, simply put, do not yet exist. Namely, given current robot design techniques, it is usually…

Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: A cohort study

Despite rigorous clinical assessment, many patients in the vegetative state are misdiagnosed. The EEG method that we developed is cheap, portable, widely available, and objective. It could allow for the rediagnosis of patients who, behaviourally, seem to be entirely vegetative, but who might have residual cognitive function and conscious awareness.

Concept learning as motor program induction: A large-scale empirical study

Human concept learning is particularly impressive in two respects: the internal structure of concepts can be representationally rich, and yet the very same concepts can also be learned from just a few examples. Several decades of research have dramatically advanced our understanding of these two aspects of concepts. While the richness and speed of concept…

Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans

Recent advances in human neuroimaging have shown that it is possible to accurately decode a person’s conscious experience based only on non-invasive measurements of their brain activity. Such brain reading has mostly been studied in the domain of visual perception, where it helps reveal the way in which individual experiences are encoded in the human…

Effects of etiquette strategy on human–robot interaction in a simulated medicine delivery task

The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which a model of linguistic etiquette in human–human interaction could be applied to the human–robot interaction (HRI) domain, and how different etiquette strategies proposed through the model might influence performance of humans and robots as mediated by manipulations of robot physical features in a…

Human-level concept learning through probabilistic program induction

People learning new concepts can often generalize successfully from just a single example, yet machine learning algorithms typically require tens or hundreds of examples to perform with similar accuracy. People can also use learned concepts in richer ways than conventional algorithms—for action, imagination, and explanation. We present a computational model that captures these human learning…