Robot intelligence (also cognitive robotics) is a branch of artificial intelligence that discusses ways in which “intelligence” in a broad sense of the word can be programmed and designed into technical systems. Artificial intelligence is an assemblage of different hardware and software architectures that, for example, allow robots to learn and adjust their behavior accordingly. Consequently, this category also includes computational techniques of learning such as machine learning, case based learning, and deep learning.

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Intersection of “Tokku” Special Zone, Robots, and the Law: A Case Study on Legal Impacts to Humanoid Robots

The unique “Tokku” Special Zone for Robot-ics Empirical Testing and Development (RT special zone) originated in Japan. Since 2003, the world’s first RT special zone had already established in Fukuoka Prefecture, Fukuoka City and Kitakyushu City. At that time, Takanishi Laboratory, Humanoid Robotics Institute of Waseda University had conducted many empirical testing within several different…

Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being

Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to “nudge” their human users in the direction of being “more ethical”. More…

One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100)

This report is the first in a series to be issued at regular intervals as a part of the One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100). Starting from a charge given by the AI100 Standing Committee to consider the likely influences of AI in a typical North American city by the year 2030, the…

The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions: An Analytic Road Map to Examine Efficiency and Fairness in Automated and Opaque Decision Making

We are currently witnessing a sharp rise in the use of algorithmic decision-making tools. In these instances, a new wave of policy concerns is set forth. This article strives to map out these issues, separating the wheat from the chaff. It aims to provide policy makers and scholars with a comprehensive framework for approaching these…

Assessing the Risk of Artificial Intelligence

One sector that saw the huge disruptive potential of AI from an early stage is the military. The weaponization of AI will represent a paradigm shift in the way wars are fought, with profound consequences for international security and stability. Serious investment in autonomous weapon systems (AWS) began a few years ago; in July 2016…

Case-based Recommender Systems

We describe recommender systems and especially case-based recommender systems. We define a framework in which these systems can be understood. The framework contrasts collaborative with case-based, reactive with proactive, single-shot with conversational, and asking with proposing. Within this framework, we review a selection of papers from the case-based recommender systems literature, covering the development of…

Emergent case-based reasoning applications

The basic principle underpinning case-based reasoning (CBR) is that new problems can be solved by reusing solutions to past problems. The generality of this idea means that CBR is finding application in a wide variety of areas. The special advantage of CBR is that a case can be a very convenient means of capturing knowledge,…

Case-Based Reasoning Systems in the Health Sciences: A Survey of Recent Trends and Developments

The health sciences are, nowadays, one of the major application areas for case-based reasoning (CBR). The paper presents a survey of recent medical CBR systems based on a literature review and an e-mail questionnaire sent to the corresponding authors of the papers where these systems are presented. Some clear trends have been identified, such as…

Dissecting the Neural Mechanisms Mediating Empathy

Empathy is thought to play a key role in motivating prosocial behavior, guiding our preferences and behavioral responses, and providing the affective and motivational base for moral development. While these abilities have traditionally been examined using behavioral methods, recent work in evolutionary biology, developmental and cognitive neuroscience has begun to shed light on the neural…

Participatory design for home care technology

We propose a Prosumer (producer + consumer) model of participatory design for applications of technology for home health. Our focus is on technology to keep elderly and disabled consumers of care independent and able to live in their own homes. Our methodology is based on a new technique for participative design whereby the consumers of…

A novel modification of the Turing test for artificial intelligence and robotics in healthcare

BACKGROUND: The increasing demands of delivering higher quality global healthcare has resulted in a corresponding expansion in the development of computer-based and robotic healthcare tools that rely on artificially intelligent technologies. The Turing test was designed to assess artificial intelligence (AI) in computer technology. It remains an important qualitative tool for testing the next generation…

The Motion Grammar: Analysis of a Linguistic Method for Robot Control

We present the Motion Grammar: an approach to represent and verify robot control policies based on context-free grammars. The production rules of the grammar represent a top-down task decomposition of robot behavior. The terminal symbols of this language represent sensor readings that are parsed in real time. Efficient algorithms for context-free parsing guarantee that online…

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