This robot control architecture developed by Ronald Arkin et al, is equally applicable to military as well as healthcare domains. According to their research, “as humans are being progressively pushed further downstream in the decision-making process of autonomous systems, the need arises to ensure that moral standards, however defined, are adhered to by these robotic artifacts. While meaningful inroads have been made in this area regarding the use of ethical lethal military robots, including work by our laboratory, these needs transcend the warfighting domain and are pervasive, extending to eldercare, robot nannies, and other forms of service and entertainment robotic platforms.”

Arkin, R., Ulam, P. and Wagner, A. “Moral Decision Making in Autonomous Systems: Enforcement, Moral Emotions, Dignity, Trust, and Deception”

Proceedings of the IEEE 10.3 (2012): 571-89.)

2009 – Ethical Autonomous Robot Architecture