The “first surgical robot.” Developed in London, England at the Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine. Created to place a needle for a brain biopsy using CT guidance. The first documented use of a robot-assisted surgical procedure occurred in 1985 when the PUMA 560 robotic surgical arm was used in a delicate neurosurgical biopsy, a non-laparoscopic surgery. The robotic system allowed for a successful robotic surgery and the potential for greater precision when used in minimally invasive surgeries, such as laparoscopies which typically utilize flexible fiber optic cameras. The 1985 robotic surgery lead to the first laparoscopic procedure involving a robotic system, a cholecystecotomy, in 1987. The following year the same PUMA system was used to perform a robotic surgery transurethral resection. In 1990 the AESOP system produced by Computer Motion became the first system approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its endoscopic surgical procedure.
1985 – Puma 56